Concern over agricultural diffuse pollution sources in integrated water quality management has been growing recently. High nitrogen fertilizers application rates may increase the potential groundwater pollution. These effects were investigated in Andimeshk and Susa plains that cover an area of 1100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers in north of Khozestan-Iran. This region divided to 4 sub-regions A, B, C, and D. Additionally 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the months April, May, August, and September of 2004. The Hack-spectrophotometer nitrate test was used to measure the NO3- concentration in water samples. Information about further nitrate data was obtained. A questionnaire procedure was used for collection N-fertilizers application rate data in studied area. The results demonstrated that all of the groundwater samples have NO3- concentration below the EPA MCL (44.27 mg/l) and WHO guideline (50 mg/l). The mean nitrate concentrations are 16.1, 19.5, 13.3, and 7.9 mg/l in sub-regions A, B, C, and D respectively. There are different amount of N-fertilizers applied in sub-regions A, B, C, and D. Correlation between NO3- concentrations and N-fertilizers rate suggests a inverse correlation between N-fertilizers application rate and ground waters nitrate concentrations in studied area (r=-0.69).
Agriculture Organization of Khozestan County, (2003). Census of Agriculture. Khozestan County Agricultural Data,
APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1998). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 20th. Ed., APHA, N. W., Washington D.C.,
Ashori, M. and A. Rozbahani, (2004). National necessity for production and development of new and native chemical fertilizers in Iran. 1st. Iranian National Seminar on Development of Agrochemical Industries, 8-10 June,
Bachmat, Y., (1994). Groundwater Contamination and Control. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, , DOI: 10.1016/0304-3894(95)90087-X. Abstract | Full Text (159 K)
Canter, L. W., (1987). Groundwater Quality Protection. Lewis Publications, Inc, Chelsea, MI,
Hallberg, G. R. and D. R. Keeney, (1993). Nitrate, Regional groundwater quality, W. J. Alley, Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
Hudak, P. F., (1999). Regional trends in nitrate content of Texas groundwater. J. Hydro., Amsterdam 228 (1-2), 37-47 (11 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00206-1. Abstract | Full Text (1037 K)
Jazayeri, G. R., (2004). Production and application economy of chemical N-fertilizers in Iran. 1st. Iranian National Seminar on Development of Agrochemical Industries, 8-10 June,
Keeney, D. R. and R. F. Follett, (1991). Managing nitrogen for groundwater quality and farm profitability. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI,
Keeney, D. R., (1982). Nitrogen management for maximum efficiency and minimum pollution. Chapter 16, Agronomy Monograph 22, F. J. Stevenson, Ed., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wis,
Kelly, W. R. and C. Ray, (1999). Impact of irrigation on dynamics of nitrate movement in a shallow sand aquifer. Res. Rep. No. 128, Illionis State Water Survey, Champaign,Ill,
Kelly, W. R., (1997). Heterogeneities in grounwater geochemistery in a sand aquifer beneath an irrigated field. J. Hydro., Amesterdam, 198 (1-4), 154-176 (23 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03316-1. Abstract | Full Text (1130 K)
Postma, D., C. Boesen, H. Kristiansen and F. Larsen, (1991). Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer: Water Chemistry, reduction processes, and geochemical modeling. Water Resour. Res., 27, 2027-2045 (19 Pages)Abstract | Full Text
Ray, C., P. E. Member, and ASCE, (1999). Management nitrate problems for domestic wells in irrigated alluvial aquifers. J. Irrig. and Drain. Eng., 127, 49-53 (5 Pages)
Susa Environmental Health Department, (2004). Groundwater Quality of Susa plain.
Trudell, M. R., R. W. Gillham and J. A. Cherry, (1986). An in-situ study of the occurrence and rate of denitrification in a shallow unconfined sand aquifer. J. Hydro., Amsterdam, 83 (3-4), 251-268 (18 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/0022-1694(86)90155-1. Abstract | Full Text (1050 K)
U.S. (1992). EPA -National water quality inventory. 1990 report to congress, EPA 502/9-92/006, Office of Water, Washington D.C.,
Water and Electric Organization of Khozestan County, (2000). Andimeshk and Susa Aquifer Informations.
WHO (World Health Organization), (1995). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 2nd. Ed.,