Dynamine (methylliberine)

Dynamine (Methylliberine): Benefits, Side Effects and Dosages

More “scientifically” known as methylliberine or tetramethyluric acid, Dynamine is a brand new stimulant – and supposed nootropic – supplement to hit the market. While most of you have probably never heard of Dynamine (or methylliberine), it is said to have an impressive array of benefits, including enhanced energy, mood, and focus. Unsurprisingly, a growing number of pre-workouts, nootropics and energy supplements are using this compound. So, it’s worth giving it a closer look.

In this article, I’ll explain what Dynamine/methylliberine is, what it does, how it works, its benefits, side effects, and more. If you have any questions, or you want to share your own experiences using Dynamine, then please post in the comments section at the end. I or another contributor will get back to you right away.


What is Dynamine (Methylliberine)?

As already alluded to above, Dynamine is a patent-pending, branded form of Methylliberine. In other words, these two compounds are one and the same; it is just that Dynamine is a specific product with a unique composition and manufacturing process patented by Compound Solutions.

Some of you may already know Compound Solutions. They are the makers of Teacrine, a branded, patent-pending form of the naturally-occurring compound Theacrine. Methylliberine and theacrine are very closely related compounds. They are both purine alkaloid compounds found in Chinese Kucha tea leaf. However, while theacrine is found in significant quantities in all green and black tea, methylliberine is not. Instead, methylliberine can be found in kucha leaf, yerba mate, and cocoa (both compounds are present in coffee robusta along with caffeine and theobromine).

What is Dynamine

So in summary, Dynamine is a branded form of methylliberine or tetramethyluric acid; a compound naturally occurring in kucha tea leaves, as well as in smaller quantities in yerba mate, cocoa and Robusta coffee. It is very similar in molecular structure to Teacrine, another product made by Compound Solutions, itself a branded form of theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid).

That’s enough on what Dynamine is. Now it’s time to look at what Dynamine does and how it supposedly works.


Benefits of Dynamine

According to the supplement manufacturers promoting Dynamine, this new stimulant nootropic comes with an incredible array of benefits.

The benefits said to be associated with use of Dynamine include:

  1. Enhanced energy, mood and focus
  2. Rapid increase in mental and physical energy
  3. Decreases fatigue
  4. Faster acting than theacrine
  5. Effects are relatively short in duration

The main benefit of Dynamine seems to be that it is much faster acting than other stimulants such as theacrine while also being much shorter in duration. This makes it ideal for people who need a quick energy and focus boost but who do not want to be kept up all night like they might be with caffeine.

With nootropics a short half-life is often a negative, but when we’re dealing with stimulants or energy supplements it can be a blessing, especially when it is combined with much more powerful effects.


Dynamine Effects: How does it work?

If we take the claims of Compound Solutions at face value, then Dynamine has a very simple mechanism of action. Much like caffeine, Dynamine/methylliberine works by acting on both adenosine and dopamine, although most of the effects are thought to come from adenosine inhibition.

Adenosine is your body’s ‘sleep signal’. In very simple terms, adenosine acts as your body’s control switch for sleepiness and fatigue. During wakefulness, adenosine is continuously released by your brain, particularly in areas involved in arousal. As levels build up throughout the day, arousal decreases and you start to feel tired and sleepy. Adenosine levels peak at night, forcing you to sleep. During sleep, adenosine levels decrease before reaching near zero by the morning, and the cycle repeats.

According to the manufacturer, Dynamine prevents adenosine from binding to adenosine receptors. By reducing adnosine receptor activity, the brain is ‘tricked’ into thinking there is less adenosine than there is, which in turn promotes mental alertness and decreases fatigue.

Interestingly, the makers of Dynamine claim that the compound is an allosteric modulator, not a competitive inhibitor. So methylliberine supposedly does not bind to adenosine receptors like caffeine does; instead, it binds to a regulatory receptor (allosteric site), which downregulates the activity of the enzyme itself. In much simpler terms, rather than prohibiting adenosine from binding to receptor sites, Dynamine claims to decrease adenosine receptor sensitivity by binding to negative allosteric modulator sites which change how adenosine is ‘processed’ or received by receptors.

How methylliberine works

In practical terms, this would mean less of a sudden “crash” once Dynamine wears off as compared to caffeine, as well as less of a tolerance buildup problem. It also means Dynamine is less potent than caffeine, producing less of an intense energy boost and reduced focus sharpening.

In summary, Dynamine/methylliberine is said to work by negatively modulating adenosine receptors. It decreases adenosine receptor sensitivity, which means that it reduces the feelings of sleepiness that result from adenosine binding to receptors. It does not completely block adenosine receptors like caffeine, so its effects are not as strong as caffeine. But nor does it have the same kind of sudden crash. By downregulating adenosine receptor sensitivity, Dynamine promotes feelings of energy, mood and motivation. It may secondarily promote dopamine activity.

Methylliberine and dopamine

There have been suggestions that Dynamine also reduces the reuptake of dopamine. Put another way, some manufacturers are claiming that Dynamine acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

While some studies have found that theacrine potentially works by activating dopaminergic pathways, there have been no studies specifically looking at Dynamine and its effects on dopamine. We know that caffeine partly works by potentiating dopamine, slightly elevating free dopamine levels in the brain. This leads to enhanced cognitive function, increased motivation, and improved mood (which most people experience when consuming significant doses of caffeine).

But both theacrine and caffeine seem to only secondarily act on dopaminergic systems via adenosine. Multiple clinical trials have found that adenosine and dopamine are able to affect one another directly[1]. One study found that “Adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverse many of the behavioral effects of DA antagonists, and A(2A) receptors are co-localized with D(2) receptors on striatal medium spiny neurons”[2].

Do Dynamine likely does not directly increase dopamine or potentiate dopamine receptors in any special way. Rather, it seems that Dynamine’s effects on adenosine receptors increase dopamine receptor activity secondarily.


Does Dynamine really work?

The problems with all of the claims you see on Dynamine reviews and product sales pages is that there are very few human clinical studies out there proving that Dynamine works as advertised.

There are plenty of studies on theacrine, none of which show particularly impressive results; they tend to merely show that theacrine does not affect the cardiovascular system like caffeine. Few show it having significant positive effects on energy, mood and cognition. We then have a lot of insinuation that Dynamine works in exactly the same way as theacrine, only faster, because they are structurally very similar.

Dynamine lacks clinical proof

However, we know that two compounds being structurally similar does not mean that they have the same effects in the human body. We are yet to even see conclusive proof that theacrine or Teacrine have the kind of benefits in terms of enhanced physical and mental performance that Compound Solutions claim. There are a lot of very impressive looking graphs on the website, but you have to get in touch and ask for studies; presumably none have been peer reviewed and published publicly!

So no, in my opinion, Dynamine cannot be said to really work in the way Compound Solutions say. Until I see hard evidence from some robust human studies, I’m forced to assume that this is another unproven, over-hyped energy supplement. There is certainly no evidence that it enhances cognition in any way.

How Long Does Methylliberine Take To Work?

Like all products marketed as natural stimulants, Dynamine is supposedly very “fast acting”. But what constitutes fast acting to one person may not be very fast acting at all to another. So just how long does methylliberine take to work?

The simple answer is, we don’t know. Compound Solutions make a lot of claims about their products but they never feel the need to back them up with clinical evidence, or any proof of any kind for that matter. there is very little information about how long Dynamine takes to work on the manufacturer’s website; all we get are vague graphs with meaningless bars and fancy backgrounds. No science. No straight facts.

Anecodtal reports suggest that Dynamine is much more fast acting than theacreine. With what we know about the pharmacokinetics of theacrine, this would suggest that Dynamine starts to work in as little as 1 hours, with effects peaking somewhere between 1 and 2 hours after initial ingestion.


Dynamine Dosage

The standard Dynamine dose ranges from 200mg-300mg. Some pre-woroout supplements use up to 400mg of Dynamine. I believe these doses to be extremely large. if Dynamine works as advertised, then nobody should be using more than 200mg at any one time. If though combined with other stimulants this should be reduced significantly. If Dynamine doesn’t work as advertised, then you shouldn’t be using it at all!

Methylliberine Half-Life

One of the main advantages of using methylliberine as a stimulant is the very short half-life. This compound only has a half-life of around 3-4 hours. For those of you worried about side effects or negative effects on sleep quality, this compares very well to other similar stimulants. For example, methylliberine has a significantly shorter half life than Teacrine, which is around 20 hours. Caffeine’s half-life is about 9 hours, or three times longer than methylliberine (and it is much stronger).

Dynamine or Teacrine?

Dynamine is presented as a kind of faster-acting, more potent, yet shorter-lived alternative to Teacrine. It is said to enhance energy, focus and mood to a significant degree. The two compounds are very similar in structure – both are forms of tetramethyluric acid. It is temping to assume that because methylliberine has a molecular structure similar to theacrine, that it works in similar ways in the body. However, this is poor scientific reasoning; small molecular differences can drastically change the pharmacokinetics of a compound.

So which should you use? Which is better?

Dynamine vs Teacrine

As it stands, I’m not convinced that either of these two stimulants actually produce any of the benefits claimed by the manufacturer. The reasoning deployed by the supplement industry as to why both Teacrine and Dynamine are amazing energy supplements is sound, but it is mere conjecture. There are no conclusive clinical trials out there proving that either of these supplements have measurable effects on energy levels, mood, focus, or fatigue.

Dynamine or Caffeine?

If you’re looking for a fast acting supplement to boost energy, mood and focus, then you need look no further than caffeine. Caffeine is really the ideal natural energy supplement; backed by reams of clinical evidence, broadly well tolerated, natural, incredibly fast acting, and non-toxic in sensible doses.

I don’t see why anybody would use exotic substances like methylliberine as a kind of caffeine alternative or caffeine replacement. If you are highly sensitive to stimulants, then you should be staying well away from energy supplements and energy drinks altogether (unless they are designed to improve energy metabolism at the cellular level).

Even though Dynamine supposedly negatively affects adenosine receptor sensitivity, this is yet to be proven by hard clinical data. As it stands, all we have to go on are claims made by the manufacturer. So we should not assume that Dynamine does indeed represent a kind of safe alternative to caffeine. Instead, by replacing caffeine with Dynamine you may well just be using a less predictable, poorly understood, more expensive compound that works in exactly the same way!

If you want a supplement to help fight fatigue, boost energy levels, sharpen focus and increase motivation, then caffeine is the obvious choice. Dynamine/methylliberine seems like an overpriced, overhyped, unproven gimmick to me.

Using Dynamine/Methylliberine As A Pre-Workout

While a fast acting stimulant with no effect on heart rate or breathing would make for a perfect pre-workout supplement, I would not recommend Dynamine as a pre-workout supplement over something like caffeine. This is because there is a total lack of conclusive scientific proof showing that Dynamine acts as an effective stimulant.

There are studies showing that Dynamine has no effect on the cardiovascular system; human trials indicate that Dynamine and Teacrine combinations do not influence measures such as heart rate, breathing or systolic blood pressure[3]. This is good, as mixing stimulants which increase heart rate with intense weight lifting can be a recipe for a heart attack or stroke if abused.

Yet while safety is very important, so is efficacy. There is no hard evidence that Dynamine improves athletic performance in any way beyond baseless, unsupported claims made on the Compound Solutions website. Compare that to caffeine, which has been proven in trial after trial to dramatically improve athletic performance and cognitive performance[4].

Dynamine as a pre-workout

The best pre-workouts use caffeine and theanine to raise energy levels, along with various other compounds known to induce a pump, promote blood flow, sharpen focus, increase motivation, and reduce fatigue. Dynamine doesn’t fall into any of these categories, so it cannot be considered a true pre-workout supplement.


Dynamine Side Effects

Is Dynamine safe?

Like all new, natural energy booster products, Dynamine claims to be a safe alternative to caffeine. Just like with Teacrine, it is said to promote feelings of energy, mood and focus in similar ways to caffeine but without any of the side effects or long-term health problems associated with caffeine use. As a substance found in the kucha tea leaf, Dynamine is said to pose no serious side effect risks to users.

On the whole, these claims seem to be true; clinical trials show that use of Dynamine is not associated with any of the negative cardiovascular effects associated with caffeine. At least in the short-term, daily use of Dynamine either alone or in combination with Teacrine for up to four weeks does not seem to negatively affect any marker of health[5]. While it therefore appears safe for people with pre-existing conditions, I strongly advise you to talk to your physician before using Dynamine – or any stimulant – if you have any kind of heart condition.

Anecodtal evidence suggests that acute Dynamine side effects are extremely rare. Some users report mild jitters, nausea, and dizziness. Insomnia has been reported in a small number of cases.

Please be aware that this is not medical advice and I am not a practicing medical doctor. None of the substances discussed on this site are intended to treat, cure, or prevent any disease or medical condition. it is vital that you do your own research carefully and consult with a medical professional before using Dynamine, methylliberine, or any substance discussed on this site. If you have a health condition that affects your energy levels, cardiovascular system, you must speak with a health care professional before using Dynamine.

Methylliberine/Dynamine FAQs

Is Dynamine a stimulant?

Dynamine is generally described as a stimulant with similar effects to caffeine. However, Dynamine is not considered a stimulant because it doesn’t increase physiological or nervous activity. Rather, Dynamine makes your adenosine receptors less sensitive, which reduces feelings of sleepiness and promotes wakefulness without raising neurotransmitter levels or increasing nervous system activity.

Is Dynamine natural?

Methylliberine is a natural substance. It can be naturally found in relatively large quantities in kucha tea leaves, as well as in smaller quantities in Yerba Mate, Cocoa, and Robusta Coffee. Dynamine, however, is a synthetic analogue of methylliberine. Its official molecular formula is 2-methoxy-1,7,9 Tetramethyluric acid. Due to its specific molecular structure, Dynamine can more easily cross membranes than methylliberine giving it overall better absorption rates and enhanced delivery.

What is theacrine used for?

Theacrine is generally used in pre-workout supplements. It is often sold as a kind of safe, ‘soft’ alternative to caffeine, with less intense effects and lower side effect risks. Studies have shown that theacrine does have none of the negative cardiovascular effects that caffeine does. But there is also no evidence to prove that theacrine produces the same benefits as caffeine.


References

[1] Quarta D, Borycz J, Solinas M, Patkar K, Hockemeyer J, Ciruela F, Lluis C, Franco R, Woods AS, Goldberg SR, Ferré S. Adenosine receptor-mediated modulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens depends on glutamate neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor stimulation. J Neurochem. 2004 Nov;91(4):873-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02761.x. PMID: 15525341.

[2] Collins LE, Galtieri DJ, Collins P, Jones SK, Port RG, Paul NE, Hockemeyer J, Müller CE, Salamone JD. Interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptor antagonists with different selectivity profiles: Effects on locomotor activity. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Aug 25;211(2):148-55. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2010.03.003. Epub 2010 Mar 6. PMID: 20211657.

[3] VanDusseldorp TA, Stratton MT, Bailly AR, et al. Safety of Short-Term Supplementation with Methylliberine (Dynamine®) Alone and in Combination with TeaCrine® in Young Adults. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):654. Published 2020 Feb 28. doi:10.3390/nu12030654

[4] Spriet LL. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports Med. 2014;44 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S175-S184. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8

[5] VanDusseldorp TA, Stratton MT, Bailly AR, et al. Safety of Short-Term Supplementation with Methylliberine (Dynamine®) Alone and in Combination with TeaCrine® in Young Adults. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):654. Published 2020 Feb 28. doi:10.3390/nu12030654

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *