Modafinil is a drug used for treating sleep disorders, narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It’s also used off-label to treat fatigue in patients with Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis. The drug is prescribed by doctors around the world and can be purchased online without prescription in many countries including the UK., but not all of them are legal.

Modafinil is a medication that can help you stay awake. It’s used to treat sleep disorders such as narcolepsy and shift work disorder. It helps people with these conditions function better during the day, while also helping them to avoid falling asleep at inappropriate times.

Do you want to know where you can get Modafinil in the UK these days?

Then you’ve come to the right spot.

That’s why, in this thorough guide, we’ll cover all you need to know about buying the world’s most popular smart medication while in the UK. We’ll go through everything from how to get prescriptions and the costs involved, to legal issues, shipment timeframes, and delivery options.


WHERE CAN I ORDER MODAFINIL IN THE UK?

Where is the best place to order Modafinil from if you live in the United Kingdom?

Without a doubt the best place to buy Modafinil if you’re in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland is Modafinil XL.

Cheap Modafinil UK

This is one of the most popular Modafinil vendors in the world. Over the years, Modafinil XL have made a name for themselves as sellers of extremely high quality pharmaceuticals for rock bottom prices.

This company offers FDA-approved generic Modafinil brands – including Modalert, Waklert and Artvigil – with express UK-to-UK shipping using Royal Mail. If you don’t wish to pay for this service, Modafinil XL will ship from Singapore in 7 days for free on orders over $180.

Medications:
Modafinil is a stimulant (Provigil, Modalert, Modvigil, etc.)
Tablet Potency:
100mg, 150mg, and 200mg available for many brands
Best Value:
$0.79
Payment:
Cryptocurrency, American Express, MasterCard
Shipping:
3-4 Business days with Domestic Shipping or Standard for Free (7 days)
Ordering Information:

Modafinil XL also offer free samples on some of the most widely-used generic Modafinil brands in the world, including the incredibly popular Artvigil.

Click the link below to get no obligation, 100% free samples sent to you in the UK, or to see their prices for products like Modalert, Waklert and Artvigil.

>>>CLICK HERE TO GET EXCLUSIVE DISCOUNTS ON MODAFINIL PRODUCTS SHIPPED TO THE UK<<<


What exactly is Modafinil?

You may only want to know where you can purchase Modafinil in the UK right now, and that’s OK.

But you may want to learn more about Modafinil and why so many successful people take it. Modafinil has earned reputation as the world’s most popular nootropic for one simple reason: it works.

Modafinil United Kingdom

Modafinil is just effective. Because of this simple and unarguable fact, Modafinil is now the most popular cognitive enhancer in the United Kingdom [1].

A single 200mg pill provides the following advantages to the overwhelming majority of users:

  • 12+ hours of ‘laser-like’ concentration
  • Productivity has increased.
  • Better cognition
  • Memory retention is improved.
  • Inability to get tired

So, how did this ostensibly miraculous medication come to be?

Two scientists working for the French pharmaceutical firm L. Lafon Ltd developed modafinil in 1974. Clinical investigations have shown that it is an effective ‘wakefulness-promoting’ (or ‘eugeroic’) medication.

It was introduced to the French market in 1994 under the brand name ‘Modiodal’ [2] and quickly developed a reputation for being a safe and effective treatment for adults with narcolepsy [3]. Doctors started prescribing it for various sleep-related conditions such as sleep apnea and shift work disorder over time.

In March 1998, modafinil was introduced in the UK under the trade name ‘Provigil,’ and it quickly became a popular narcolepsy therapy. Provigil’s potential “off label” advantages, on the other hand, garnered extensive attention when a number of scientific investigations revealed it to be an effective cognitive enhancer [4]. Provigil has been demonstrated to be effective in clinical settings for anything from schizophrenia to ADHD to cocaine addiction [7].

Modafinil was widely used ‘off prescription’ (self-administered) throughout the early 2000s by students, entrepreneurs, and CEOs searching for a competitive advantage. Modafinil immediately became the most frequently used’smart’ medication, or nootropic [8] in the United Kingdom, a position it still holds today.

Why?

Nothing compares to that.

Modafinil operates as an exceptionally potent stimulant when used ‘off prescription’ by persons who do not have narcolepsy. It significantly increases dopamine and histamine levels [9], giving users a feeling of extraordinary mental clarity and focus [10].

Most of Modafinil’s cognitive advantages, such as increased memory and critical thinking abilities, are due to extra dopamine [11]. Dopamine is a known mood booster that allows almost everyone to get more work done without being distracted [12].

It’s no surprise that Modafinil is now the most popular nootropic in the United Kingdom.


Modafinil Safety and Side Effects

So, what are the potential adverse effects of using Modafinil? What should you know about taking Modafinil as a nootropic safely?

The safety profile of modafinil is excellent. When used at the prescribed amount of 100-200mg per day under the guidance of a doctor, it has little negative effects [13]. However, it is a powerful prescription drug, and all users must use it cautiously. It’s obviously not a daily medication; we don’t take it more than twice a week.

Official advice state that you should not take Modafinil if you:

  • Are expecting [14].
  • Are you anxious or depressed?
  • You’re using a prescription drug that might interact with Modafinil.

What should you be mindful of assuming you’re not on the list?

Our personal safety worry with Modafinil is that little research has been done on its usage as a “smart drug” or “study drug” off-label. However, one of the most comprehensive studies to date looked at the negative effects of a 200mg Modafinil dosage in patients who did not have narcolepsy [15]. The results of this research should not be used to replace medical advice, but they are useful for anybody considering taking Modafinil “off the shelf.”

Dry mouth, diarrhea, headaches, and moderate nausea were the most prevalent adverse effects. Fortunately, these adverse effects were modest and only lasted a short time, so most people taking 200mg or less of Modafinil shouldn’t be concerned.

However, everyone’s response to Modafinil will vary based on a variety of variables such as their health, medical history, genetics, and whether or not they are taking any other prescription medicines.

For example, one person may have a headache after taking 100mg of Modafinil, while another may handle a 200mg dosage without any negative side effects.

As a result, all Modafinil users should keep a close eye on their bodies and analyze how they feel while on the drug.

Modafinil may cause unusual adverse effects such vertigo, disorientation, and hallucinations when used in high amounts. If you have these adverse effects, you should immediately stop taking Modafinil and get medical help [16].

However, scientific research and anecdotal experience have indicated that most individuals handle Modafinil well at dosages of 100-200mg.


Is Modafinil Legal in the United Kingdom?

We’ve accumulated a plethora of knowledge on all things Modafinil as the web’s #1 Modafinil site. This covers information about Modafinil’s legal status in the United Kingdom, which we hope will serve as a helpful starting point for future investigation.

Is it thus legal to purchase Provigil in the United Kingdom? Of certainly, as long as you follow the rules.

After all, the UK government regulates Modafinil as a prescription-only medicine.

Let’s take a closer look:

  • In the United Kingdom, modafinil, whether generic or Provigil, is a prescription-only drug (POM) [17].
  • If you have a prescription from a British doctor, you may buy Modafinil from a pharmacy in the United Kingdom [18].
  • If you have a Modafinil prescription from the European Economic Area or Switzerland, a pharmacy in the United Kingdom will use his or her professional judgment to decide whether or not to honor it.

On the prescription side, individuals with narcolepsy, sleep apnea, or shift work problem are more likely to be prescribed Modafinil by British doctors.

Modafinil cannot be prescribed for its ‘off prescription’ (nootropic) advantages or purchased over-the-counter (OTC) at a UK pharmacy without a prescription.

But what about ordering on the internet? Are there any legal concerns when purchasing Modafinil online and having it delivered to the United Kingdom?

NO, based only on our own experience…

Our UK team members will also follow this path.

This is why:

  • In the United Kingdom, possession of a POM is only criminal if the prescription medication is subject to the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 [19]. Modafinil is currently not on our list, and we have never received a suggestion to include it. As a result, having Modafinil is not regarded a criminal violation.
  • Modafinil is also not included in the Psychoactive Substances Act of 2016 [20].

Because Modafinil isn’t classified in either the Misuse of Drugs Act or the Psychoactive Substances Act, it seems that possessing it for personal use is perfectly lawful – even if you don’t have a prescription.

However, here is where you should pay close attention.

It is illegal to sell Modafinil to anybody in the UK unless you have a license to do so, according to the Medicines Act 1968. To put it another way, you should never purchase anything for a buddy or order in quantity to resell. That is prohibited.

Given these reasons, we’re not surprised that no one in the UK has faced legal consequences for obtaining a moderate quantity of Modafinil for personal use. We’re talking about three months’ worth of supplies. For the most part, this translates to less than 100 pills.

To reiterate, people who have bought this amount (or less) of Modafinil have had no difficulty obtaining their purchases, particularly when buying from one of our recommended suppliers.

Let’s assume import regulations “catch” your smart medications while they’re in route. What is the most probable worst-case scenario? Import restrictions seize your package, which is then destroyed by customs. Even if this happens, every reputable online Modafinil pharmacy will refund your money or provide you a free replacement. It’s your decision.

No harm. No foul.

So, Is Modafinil Illegal in the United Kingdom?

It is lawful to possess but prohibited to resale (unless you are a qualified pharmacist), according to our understanding.

In other words, we do not believe that purchasing online poses any real danger. However, we’re simply speaking from personal experience; this isn’t legal advice. We advise you to do your homework and always follow UK legislation.


Getting a Modafinil Prescription in the United Kingdom

While Modafinil rules in the UK do not seem to be a problem for the great majority of people, some may be curious about how to get a Modafinil prescription here.

What’s the truth?

In the United Kingdom, getting a Modafinil prescription might be challenging.

This is for one and only one reason…

In the United Kingdom, modafinil is only licensed to treat narcolepsy and excessive daytime drowsiness caused by sleep apnea or shift work problem. As a result, GPs are unlikely to prescribe Modafinil for ‘off-label’ applications like smart drugs or nootropics.

This is why:

When administering a drug for its ‘off-label’ advantages in the UK, physicians may expose themselves to litigation and increased legal risk: ‘ [21]:

When prescribing an unlicensed or off-label prescription, the duty on healthcare practitioners may be higher than when prescribing a licensed medicine within the rules of its license. Prescribers should be aware of the hazards connected with utilizing unlicensed drugs or off-label use of a licensed medicine.

To put it another way, if a British doctor prescribes a medicine off-label that causes a patient to develop a health concern, they are significantly less likely to be legally protected than if the prescription was for an allowed purpose. So don’t be shocked if you’re kindly sent away from your doctor’s office if you inquire about Provigil for cognitive improvement.

To get a Modafinil prescription in the United Kingdom, you must typically demonstrate that you suffer from narcolepsy or excessive daytime drowsiness caused by sleep apnea or shift sleep disorder.

That’s pretty much the only way you can be sure you’ll obtain a prescription. As a result, many of our UK readers have discovered that purchasing Modafinil online is significantly more convenient while living in the UK.

That’s what we’ll talk about next…


WHERE CAN I ORDER MODAFINIL ONLINE in the UK in 2022?

You’ve come to the correct place if you’re searching to purchase Modafinil in the United Kingdom. The two top online Modafinil dealers that ship to the UK are listed below.

We’ve worked with a half-dozen pharmacies over the years and have found the two providers listed below to be the finest.

They both provide:

  • Shipping to the United Kingdom is quick.
  • Generic Modafinil that is legal.
  • Delivery assurance
  • Excellent Value
  • Incredible Bitcoin discounts
  • Coupons for returning customers
  • …And more!

Let’s get started and explore where you can purchase Modafinil online in the United Kingdom.

Here are some of our favorites:

ModafinilXL.com

Highlights

  • Discounts galore
  • Worldwide Express Shipping
  • Guaranteed Shipping

Modafinil XL is the first seller we suggest checking out if you’re looking to purchase Modafinil in the UK.

These folks provide excellent customer service, affordable pricing, genuine items, and some of the industry’s greatest discounts.

The main benefits of buying from Modafinil XL if you’re in the UK are:

  • Free sample packets of ten Modafinil or Armodafinil pills (shipping is $29).
  • Discounts of 50% on 200+ pill combination packs.
  • All items above $80 get free standard delivery (10-15 business days).
  • All purchases above $150 get free expedited delivery (7-12 business days).
  • If you purchase using Bitcoin, you’ll get a 20% discount (BTC).
  • Guaranteed Shipping!

Don’t take our word for it, however…

ModafinilXL has around 700,000 consumers throughout the globe and thousands of positive reviews on Google, TrustPilot, Yotpo, and Reddit.

ModafinilXL is ideal if you’re scared about obtaining Modafinil online in the UK.

Why?

They now distribute Modafinil directly from their UK warehouse via Royal Mail UK domestic shipping. For only $39 plus 35%, you’ll get your item in 2-5 business days with no risk of delivery to your UK address. Guaranteed!

Yes, this is a costly choice, but it is currently the safest and quickest method to get Modafinil in the United Kingdom.

Overall, a STRONG recommendation!


Modafinil Shipping To United Kingdom

You don’t have to be concerned about obtaining your Modafinil delivered to the UK!

Why?

Because both of the online Modafinil vendors we recommend offer Guaranteed Shipping to the UK. Every. Single. Time.

According to our UK readers, the UK Border Force quickly clears the great majority of generic Modafinil shipments from other countries… Specifically, Singapore and India (where the medicine is manufactured).

It’s no wonder, therefore, that our favorite sellers promise shipping to the United Kingdom. This implies that if your delivery is held up in customs forever, they will reimburse your whole transaction.

Shipping Modafinil to England Scotland Wales Ireland

If customs officers seized a large number of parcels, the merchants would lose money. We’ve also discussed the legal implications of obtaining Modafinil online in the United Kingdom.

As previously stated, the Misuse of Drugs Act and the Psychoactive Substances Act do not apply to Modafinil, and having it for personal use is not a crime in the United Kingdom.

Our UK users have reported having no problems ordering Modafinil online and having it delivered to their homes, with the condition that they never purchase an amount that would be considered excessive or for commercial reasons.

Again, it looks that the worst-case situation is that customs seizes the smart medications and the supplier offers you a refund or free reshipment.

So obtaining Modafinil delivered to the UK shouldn’t be a problem. You’re ready to go!

Can you get Modafinil next day delivery in the UK?

While you can definitely get Modafinil on next day delivery from the NHS if you have a prescription, you cannot buy Modafinil from an online pharmacy and get next day delivery to the UK. The fastest delivery to the UK is with Modafinil XL and takes approximately 3-4 days with domestic shipping options.

Most of the leading producers of generic Modafinil medications are based in the likes of Singapore and India; countries that have invested heavily in generic drug manufacture across the board. As such, shipping to the UK can take time, especially as you’re having controlled substances shipped across borders!

>>>CLICK HERE TO SEE PRICES FOR PRIORITY UK SHIPPING FROM MODAFINIL XL<<<


Are generic Modafinil and Armodafinil available in the UK?

If you have been diagnosed with narcolepsy and have a valid prescription from your doctor, you may purchase Modafinil from a pharmacy in the United Kingdom. Once you have that prescription, you may simply go to any pharmacy in the UK and purchase Provigil, which is the country’s legally recognized brand name for Modafinil.

You might potentially be given ‘Nuvigil,’ a brand name for Armodafinil, a newer, more powerful type of Modafinil.

However, you won’t find Provigil or Nuvigil for sale while shopping for Modafinil online. Instead, generic Modafinil and Armodafinil drugs such as:

Each of these items claims to provide significant cognitive advantages. After examining all of these items, we have a few suggestions for our British readers and those who live in the nation.

Modalert is, in our opinion, the most powerful generic Modafinil medication available in the UK. It’s without a doubt our go-to. Modvigil, on the other hand, is a low-cost substitute for Modafinil.

Are you looking for Armodafinil, Modafinil’s younger relative, in the UK? Then Waklert is our choice. Artvigil, on the other hand, is a less expensive version of generic Armodafinil. In general, we utilize Modalert and Waklert.

All of this can be purchased from Modafinil XL. Click the link below for exclusive discounts and offers.

Modafinil XL offers ultra-fast domestic shipping from within the UK, something no other vendor offers at the time of writing!

>>>CLICK HERE FOR THE BEST MODAFINIL PRICES IN THE UK<<<


What’s the Final Word? | United Kingdom Edition

That’s all there is to it for Modafinil in the United Kingdom.

Everything you need to know about buying Modafinil in the United Kingdom.

You’ll need these information to obtain the excellent stuff. The legal aspects. And find out how to purchase the world’s most popular smart medications at the greatest costs!

Where Is The Best Place To Get Modafinil in 2023?

Modalert 200 Modafinil

It can be difficult to know where to actually get Modafinil right now. In most jurisdictions, Modafinil is a prescription medication available only as Provigil (or Nuvigil if you are prescribed Armodafinil).

There's also the issue of untrustworthy vendors that take your money and deliver counterfeit or low quality product - or sometimes no product at all!

So where can you feel confident when buying Modafinil online without a prescription?

Modafinil XL is currently our top rated Modafinil vendor in the world, and is hands down the best place to buy Modafinil online.

We have ordered from these guys dozens of times now and each time they deliver top quality generic Modafinil brands within 3-4 days for an unbeatable price.

The benefits of ordering from ModafinilXL.com over other merchants are:

  • Superior quality product than smaller vendors
  • Modafinil sourced from reputable generic pharamceutical labs
  • US-based company shipping internally for US customers
  • Market-beating prices for Modalert, Waklert, Artvigil, and other popular Modafinil brands
  • Offers chewable sublingual Modafinil tablets for convenience

The best thing about Modafinil XL - besides the priority US shipping from US-based facilities - is the price. Clicking the link below will take you to the site where you'll find as much as 50% off the leading Modafinil brands, as well as the offer of free, no obligation samples of Armodafinil and Modafinil.

>>>CLICK HERE TO GET 50% OFF LEADING MODAFINIL BRANDS WITH US-TO-US PRIORITY SHIPPING<<<


References

  1. MW, Kredlow MA, Keshishian A, Oppenheimer S, Otto “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Modafinil’s Efficacy as a Cognitive Enhancer.” Clinical psychopharmacology journal. National Library of Medicine, United States. The date was February 13, 2021. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31433334/.
  2. Modafinil Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-16962/modafinil-oral/details
  3. A comprehensive review of modafinil: Potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms of action, Ballon JS, Feifel D. 2006;67(4):554-566. doi:10.4088/jcp.v67n0406.
  4. Effects of modafinil on cognitive and metacognitive performance, Baranski JV, Pigeau R, Dinich P, Jacobs I. 2004 Jul;19(5):323-32 in Human Psychopharmacology. doi: 10.1002/hup.596. PMID: 15252824.
  5. Modafinil is a stimulant (2019, August 18). https://www.drugs.com/cdi/modafinil.html retrieved
  6. C. Giurgea. Towards an Integrative Brain Activity Pharmacology. Psychopharmacology’s tentative idea of nootrope [Pharmacology of brain integrative function. Actual Pharmacol (Paris). 1972;25:115-56. Attempt at nootropic notion in psychopharmacology]. PMID: 4541214 in French.
  7. Modafinil ADHD Study Group (Biederman J, Swanson JM, Wigal SB, Boellner SW, Earl CQ, Lopez FA). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled research compared once-daily and split dosages of modafinil in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID: 16841622. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 May;67(5):727-35. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v67n0506.
  8. CA Dackis, KM Kampman, KG Lynch, HM Pettinati, and CP O’Brien. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study of modafinil for cocaine addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(1), 205-11, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300600 PMID: 15525998.
  9. T. Ishizuka, Y. Sakamoto, T. Sakurai, and A. Yamatodani. In the anterior hypothalamus of rats, modafinil enhances histamine release. 339(2):143-146 in Neurosci Lett. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(03)00006-5
  10. The physiology of brain histamine, Brown RE, Stevens DR, Haas HL. 2001;63(6):637-672 in Prog Neurobiol. doi:10.1016/s0301-0082(00)00039-3
  11. D. Zolkowska, R. Jain, R. B. Rothman, J. S. Partilla, B. L. Roth, V. Setola, T. E. Prisinzano, M. H. Baumann. Evidence that dopamine transporters are involved in modafinil’s behavioral stimulant effects. 10.1124/jpet.108.146142. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 May;329(2):738-46. PMID: 19197004; PMCID: PMC2672878; Epub 2009 Feb 5.
  12. Modafinil: a review of neurochemical activities and cognitive effects, Minzenberg MJ, Carter CS. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jun;33(7):1477-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301534 PMID: 17712350. Epub 2007 Aug 22.
  13. drug summary for modafinil (n.d.). https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Provigil-modafinil-2332
  14. Healthycanadians.gc.ca. 2020. ALERTEC (Modafinil) And The Risk Of Congenital Anomalies – Recalls And Safety Alerts. [online] Available at: <https://healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2019/70201a-eng.php#:~:text=ALERTEC%20(modafinil%20100%20mg%20tablets,a%20circadian%20rhythm%20sleep%20disorder).> [Accessed 3 October 2020].
  15. E. Lopes, D. Pereira, N. Silva Behrens, H. de Almeida Fonseca, P. O. Calvancanti, T. F. de Arajo Lima, M. Pradella-Hallinan, J. Castro, S. Tufik, and F. M. Coelho. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a non-narcoleptic patient. Sleep Sci. 2014 Mar;7(1):47-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sleepscience.2014.03.
  16. Apo-Modafinil is a kind of modafinil (n.d.). https://www.rexall.ca/articles/view/2663/Apo-Modafinil retrieved from https://www.rexall.ca/articles/view/2663/A
  17. Reclassify your pharmaceuticals. (2019, October 3). https://www.gov.uk/guidance/medicines-reclassify-your-product (retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/guidance/medicines-reclass
  18. Medicine product information may be found here. (December 19, 2019). http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/par/documents/websiteresources/con273748.pdf was retrieved.
  19. 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act (n.d.). http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/contents retrieved
  20. Legislation.gov.uk. 2020. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. [online] Available at: <https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted> [Accessed 4 October 2020].
  21. Prescribers’ responsibility in off-label or unlicensed drug usage. (11 December 2014). www.gov.uk/drug-safety-update/off-label-or-unlicensed-use-of-medicines-prescribers-responsibilities

Where Is The Best Place To Get Modafinil in 2023?

Modalert 200 Modafinil

It can be difficult to know where to actually get Modafinil right now. In most jurisdictions, Modafinil is a prescription medication available only as Provigil (or Nuvigil if you are prescribed Armodafinil).

There's also the issue of untrustworthy vendors that take your money and deliver counterfeit or low quality product - or sometimes no product at all!

So where can you feel confident when buying Modafinil online without a prescription?

Modafinil XL is currently our top rated Modafinil vendor in the world, and is hands down the best place to buy Modafinil online.

We have ordered from these guys dozens of times now and each time they deliver top quality generic Modafinil brands within 3-4 days for an unbeatable price.

The benefits of ordering from ModafinilXL.com over other merchants are:

  • Superior quality product than smaller vendors
  • Modafinil sourced from reputable generic pharamceutical labs
  • US-based company shipping internally for US customers
  • Market-beating prices for Modalert, Waklert, Artvigil, and other popular Modafinil brands
  • Offers chewable sublingual Modafinil tablets for convenience

The best thing about Modafinil XL - besides the priority US shipping from US-based facilities - is the price. Clicking the link below will take you to the site where you'll find as much as 50% off the leading Modafinil brands, as well as the offer of free, no obligation samples of Armodafinil and Modafinil.

>>>CLICK HERE TO GET 50% OFF LEADING MODAFINIL BRANDS WITH US-TO-US PRIORITY SHIPPING<<<

About the Author P. Tardner


Paul Tardner is the Head Writer at IJEST.org. Paul is a former academic and research scientist. He now dedicates his time to his own research into nootropics, with a particular focus on cognitive enhancement in old age. You can learn more about Paul from his profile page.

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